City & State Diplomacy

There is a new multilateralism growing within the United States and around the world.

Brought together by shared principles and goals, city and state governments are engaging their global counterparts in joint advocacy and action. Strengthening ties between local and national governments is one way the Truman Center is committed to expanding the voices and ownership of U.S. foreign policy, to ensure that diplomacy serves all Americans.

Resource Library

With support from members of the City & State Diplomacy Task Force, the Truman Center has compiled a living resource library to capture recent publications and commentary on this subject. If you would like to recommend additional materials, please send suggestions to programs@trumanproject.org.

Abbott, Max. “Time for the Quad to Expand Into Subnational Partnerships.” The Diplomat. February 2, 2022.

Acuto, Michele. “Are Mayors The New Diplomats?” Diplomatic Courier. May 31, 2012. 

Ahmed et al. “Making U.S. Foreign Policy Work Better for the Middle Class.“ Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2020.

Amiri, Sohaela. "City Diplomacy: An Introduction to the Forum.The Hague Journal of Diplomacy 17, no. 1 (February 2022): 91-95.

Amiri, Sohaela, and Rafiq Dossani. “City Diplomacy Has Been on the Rise. Policies Are Finally Catching Up.” RAND Corporation. November 22, 2019.

Ayres, Alyssa. “Creating a State Department Office for American State and Local Diplomacy.” Council on Foreign Relations. June 7, 2017. 

Bade, Scott, and Anka Lee. “Think Beyond the Beltway — Bring Mayors and Governors to the Foreign Policy Table.” Just Security. October 20, 2020. 

Berggruen Institute. “Reimagining the Role of Cities & City Diplomacy in the Multilateral Order: Workshop Summary.” Los Angeles, CA: Berggruen Institute, 2021.

Blake, Jonathan, and Nils Gilman. “Governing In The Planetary Age.” Noema Magazine. March 9, 2021. 

Bouchet, Max. “Strengthening Foreign Policy through Subnational Diplomacy.” The Hague Journal of Diplomacy 17, no. 1 (2022): 96-108.

Burns, Alexander. “Going around Trump, Governors Embark on Their Own Diplomatic Missions.The New York Times. July 15, 2017.

City News Service. “LA Leads Coalition in Amicus Brief to Support DACA Program.” Spectrum News 1. December 16, 2021. 

Cooper, Adom. “A Well-Traveled Populace Will Make America Safer.” Inkstick. March 1, 2021.

Cooper, Adom. “Turtle Island Project: Prose Meets Policy for Stronger U.S. National Security.” Just Security. March 17, 2021. 

Cooper, Adom. “U.S. ‘National Security’ Must Apply to the Entire Nation.” Just Security. March 7, 2020.

Day, Joel.Planning for Global Engagement in Cities.CPD Perspectives 14, no. 1 (February 2022): 1-39.

Ehrendreich, Joel. “State U—A Proposal for Professional Diplomatic Education and Outreach to America.” The Foreign Service Journal, (July/August 2021): 47-50.

Engelke, Peter. “Foreign Policy for an Urban World: Global Governance and the Rise of Cities.” Washington, DC: Atlantic Council, 2015. 

FSJ Editorial Board. “On a New Approach to City and State Diplomacy.” The Foreign Service Journal, (January/February 2022): 20-21.  

Garcetti, Eric, and Nina Hachigian. “Cities Are Transforming U.S. Foreign Policy: Biden Would Do Well to Work with Them.” Foreign Affairs. December 29, 2020. 

Garrison, Bishop, and Jon B. Wolfsthal, “An Appeal to the National Security Community to Fight Racial Injustice.” Foreign Policy. June 2, 2020. 

Haass, Richard. “Foreign Policy By Example Crisis at Home Makes the United States Vulnerable Abroad.” Foreign Affairs. June 5, 2020. 

Hachigian, Nina. “Cities Will Determine the Future of Diplomacy. Foreign Policy. April 16, 2019.

Hachigian, Nina. “Why U.S. Cities and States Should Play a Bigger Role in Foreign Policy.” Foreign Policy. April 19, 2021.

Hawai’i Green Growth. “Sustainability Business Forum 2021 Annual Report.” Hawai’i: Hawaii Green Growth, 2020.

Henry, Brad, and Mary Fallin. “Fallin and Henry: How American Diplomacy Can Boost Oklahoma's Economy.” The Oklahoman, July 31, 2022.

Hřib et al. “How Grassroots Democracy Can Cure the Ills of Central Europe. European Council on Foreign Relations. December 16, 2019. 

Hurlburt, Heather, and Alexandra Stark. “Global Cities as Reservoirs of Democracy,” New America. November 30, 2021. 

Johnson, Eric. “Biden's State Department Needs an Office to Help Local Governments.” The Hill. May 5, 2021. 

Kelemen, Michele. “State Department Should Be More Diverse And Engaged Across U.S., Report Says,” NPR. March 3, 2021.

Kesler, Nick, and Glen Allen. “Letters to the Editor for July 6, 2022: Deeper International Ties.” Richmond Times-Dispatch, July 5, 2022.

Klaus et al. Toward City Diplomacy: Assessing Capacity in Select Global Cities. Chicago: Chicago Council on Global Affairs, 2018. 

Klaus, Ian. “How Cities Can Help Biden Repair American Diplomacy.” Bloomberg. November 10, 2020.

Klaus, Ian. “Subnational Diplomacy Evolves: From Urban Arenas to City Partners.” Columbia University Journal of International Affairs 74, no. 1 (April 2022).

Klaus, Ian. “Why a Dark Future Demands Urban Leadership.” Bloomberg. June 21, 2021.

Koranyi, David. “How City Governments Can Help Revitalize the Multilateral System.” European Council on Foreign Relations. March 15, 2021.

Leffel, Benjamin. “Principles of Modern City Diplomacy and the Expanding Role of Cities in Foreign Policy.” Columbia University Journal of International Affairs 74, no. 1 (January 2022).

Lewis et al. “It Is Time for the United States to Institutionalize Subnational Diplomacy.” Transatlantic Take. The German Marshall Fund, January 26, 2021. 

Lieu, Ted. “Subnational Diplomacy: The Key to Strengthening U.S. International Relations.Harvard Law School Journal on Legislation 59, no. 1 (May 2022).

National Research Council. Diplomacy for the 21st Century: Embedding a Culture of Science and Technology throughout the Department of State. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2015. 

National Research Council. The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health in Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 1999.

Pipa, Anthony F., and Max Bouchet. “How to Make the Most of City Diplomacy in the COVID-19 Era.” Brookings. March 9, 2022. 

Pipa, Anthony F., and Max Bouchet. “Multilateralism Restored? City Diplomacy in the COVID-19 Era.” Hague Journal of Diplomacy 15, no. 4 (September 2020): 599-610.

Pipa, Anthony F., and Max Bouchet. “Partnership Among Cities, States, and the Federal Government: Creating an Office of Subnational Diplomacy at the US Department of State.” Brookings. February 17, 2021. 

Pipa, Anthony F., and Max Bouchet. “The Urban 20 (U-20): Pathways to Maximizing its Partnership with the G-20.” Brookings. January 28, 2021.

Pipa, Anthony F., and Nina Hachigian. “Can Cities Fix a Post-Pandemic World Order?” Foreign Policy, May 5, 2020.

Pipa et al. “Strengthening U.S. Foreign Policy Through Subnational Diplomacy.” Webinar from Brookings. May 27, 2021.

Pejic, Daniel, Anna Kosovac, and Michele Acuto. “New Foreign Relations Bill Puts 'City Diplomacy' at Risk.” Pursuit. The University of Melbourne, September 10, 2020.

Rivera, Tim. “Transatlantic Cooperation: Working Together for Sustainable Urban Development.” Medium. July 18, 2018.

Saifee, Maryum. Subnational Diplomacy: A National Security Imperative.” The Foreign Service Journal, (January/February 2022): 22-24.  

Spiegel, Julia. “Embracing Foreign Affairs Federalism in a Post-Trump Era.” Lawfare. March 3, 2021.

Spiegel, Julia. “How States Like California Are Bolstering Federal Sanctions Against Russia.” Just Security. April 5, 2022. 

Ted Lieu. ​​“Representative Lieu's Subnational Diplomacy Bill Advances out of Committee.” Congressman Ted Lieu. July 29, 2021. 

Temin, Jon. “City and State Diplomacy are Key to Saving Foreign Policy.” The Hill, July 2, 2022.

Torres, Emerita. “Opinion: Thinking Big About a Latino Recovery Plan.” City & State New York. November 29, 2021. 

Torres, Emerita. “Rethinking New York's Role in City Diplomacy.” Gotham Gazette. Citizens Union Foundation, September 21, 2021.

Torres, Emerita. “The Future of Diplomacy Is Local.” The Foreign Service Journal, (January/February 2022): 30-32.

Truman Center for National Policy. Transforming State: Pathways to a More Just, Equitable, and Innovative Institution.Washington, DC: 2021. 41-51.

U.S. Congress. House. Financial Services— Energy and Commerce. Climate Change Financial Risk Act of 2021. 117th Cong., 1st sess.

U.S. Congress. House. Foreign Affairs Committee. City and State Diplomacy Act. 117th Cong., 1st sess.

Walling, Carrie B. “Carrie Booth Walling: Foreign Policy Should Be Built in the Midwest.” Chicago Tribune, July 11, 2022.

Wang, Jay, and Sohaela Amiri. “Building a Capacity Framework for U.S. City Diplomacy. RAND Corporation. March 11, 2019.

Wardwell, Sarah. “Consular Skills Put to Use in Rural America.” The Foreign Service Journal, (March 2022): 61-63.

Akinnusotu, Bunmi. “All Eyes on U.S.: How America Should Walk its Talk.What in the World Podcast. Podcast audio. August 2020.

Chowdhury Fink et al. “The Soufan Center Webinar: “The Roles of Cities: Strengthening Resilience, Governance, and Security.” Webinar from The Soufan Center. March 2, 2022. 

Glaser, Bonnie S. “Think Globally, Act Locally: China’s Local Diplomacy Strategy.” China Global Podcast. Podcast Audio. October 12, 2021.

Hanson, Brian. “City Diplomacy on the Rise.Deep Dish on Global Affairs. Podcast audio. May 30, 2019.

Hanson, Brian. “Renewing American Democracy.Deep Dish on Global Affairs. Podcast audio. September 16, 2021.

Melissen, Jan. “City Diplomacy: Framework or Patchwork?” Webinar from USC Annenberg. April 7, 2022.

Pipa et al. “Strengthening U.S. Foreign Policy Through Subnational Diplomacy.” Webinar from Brookings. May 27, 2021.

PSIA Students. “UNICEF’s Urban Policy.City Diplomacy Students’ Podcast. Podcast audio. Fall 2021.

Rhodes-Conway, Satya, Sylvester Turner, and Patrick Gaspard. “Securing Our Democracy: How Mayors Are Working To Protect the Right To Vote.” Webinar from the Center for American Progress Action Fund. January 14, 2022.

Government of the State of Hawai'i. “Aloha+ Challenge.” Aloha+. 

Hawai’i Green Growth“Aloha+ Challenge 2020 Benchmark Report: Hawai'i’s Voluntary Local Review of Progress on the Sustainable Development Goals.” Hawaii: 2020.

U.S. Global Leadership Coalition. “Global Impact Blog.” 

U.S. Global Leadership Coalition. “Resources.” 

U.S. Global Leadership Coalition. “State Fact Sheets on State Diplomacy.”

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Truman Member Voices on City & State Diplomacy

Adom Cooper, Security Fellow, Truman National Security Project
Emerita Torres, Security Fellow, Truman National Security Project
Carrie Walling, Security Fellow, Truman National Security Project
Mari Manoogian, Political Partner, Truman National Security Project
Tim Rivera, Senior Advisor, Truman National Security Project
Maryum Saifee, Security Fellow, Truman National Security Project
Nickolaus Kesler, Defense Council, Truman National Security Project